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Phenological Stages

Period in plant growing that can be considered as distinct part of development which are important for many aspects of agricultural production as they provide basic information on crop requirements at certain time of thier growth. The BBCH-scale is a scale frequently used to identify these developmental stages of a plant which have been developed for a range of plant in particular crop species. Other apporaches to describe phenological stages:

  • Plastochton Index (Erikson and Michelini 1957)
  • Haun scale (Haun 1973)
  • Moore Scale (More et al 1991)
  • Sanderson scale (Sanderson and Matt 1992)
  • Zadoks scale (Zadoks et al. 1974)


Erikson RO & Michelini FJ (1957) The Plastochron Index. Americal Journal of Botany 44, 297 – 305

Haun, J. R. 1973. Visual quantification of wheat development. Agronomy Journal 65:116-119.

Moore, K. J., L. E. Moser, K. P. Vogel, S. S. Wailer, B. E. Johnson, and J. F. Pedersen. 1991. Describing and quantifying growth stages of perennial forage grasses. Agronomy Journal 83:1073—1 077.

Sanderson, Matt A. 1992. Morphological development of switchgrass and kleingrass. Agronomy Journal 84:415-419.

Zadoks, J. C., T. T. Chang, and C. F. Konzak. 1974. A decimal code for the growth stages of cereals. Weed Research 14:415—421.